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Cell Mol Immunol. 2004 Aug;1(4):239-46.

Direct and indirect role of Toll-like receptors in T cell mediated immunity.

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  • 1Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G11 6NT, UK.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition receptors that play an important role in protective immunity against infection and inflammation. They act as central integrators of a wide variety of signals, responding to diverse agonists of microbial products. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to signaling pathways that activate not only innate, but also adaptive immunity by APC dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence revealed that TLR signals played a determining role in the skewing of naive T cells towards either Th1 or Th2 responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors also directly or indirectly influences regulatory T cell functions. Therefore, TLRs are required in both immune activation and immune regulation. Study of TLRs has significantly enhanced our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and provides novel therapeutic approaches against infectious and inflammatory diseases.

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