Send to

Choose Destination
Kidney Int. 2005 Nov;68(5):2237-43.

ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with mortality in a cohort study of patients starting with dialysis.

Author information

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.



In dialysis patients, only a few follow-up studies have addressed the relationship between the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and mortality, but the available data are contradictory.


A cohort of 453 consecutive patients starting dialysis between January 1999 and January 2002 and participating in a Dutch multicenter prospective study was examined. Patients who died within 3 months after the start of dialysis were excluded. Patients were followed until date of death or censoring in November 2003.


The ACE II, ID, and DD genotype frequencies were 24.3% (N = 110), 50.1% (N = 227), and 25.6% (N = 116). Besides a slightly higher number of Caucasians in the DD group, all other patient characteristics of the 3 ACE groups were similar at the start of dialysis. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, and ethnic background, patients with the ID and DD genotype showed an increased hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality of 1.55 (95% CI 1.00-2.42) and 2.30 (95% CI 1.41-3.75), compared to patients with the II genotype. Slightly lower HRs were found for cardiovascular mortality. All groups of primary kidney disease showed a 2- to 3-fold increased adjusted HR for DD.


The DD genotype identifies dialysis patients at an increased risk for mortality.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center