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Nano Lett. 2005 Oct;5(10):2063-9.

Bioconjugated superstructures of CdTe nanowires and nanoparticles: multistep cascade Förster resonance energy transfer and energy channeling.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


Nanoparticle/nanowire assemblies with a degree of radial organization were prepared around luminescent semiconducting CdTe nanowires using bioconjugation with streptavidin and D-biotin linkers. Red-emitting nanowires (6.62 +/- 1.55 nm diameter, 512 +/- 119 nm length) and green-emitting nanoparticles (3.2 +/- 0.7 nm diameter) were surface-modified with biotin, while orange-emitting nanoparticles (4.1 +/- 1.2 nm diameter) were decorated with streptavidin. CdTe nanocrystals produced two fuzzy layers around the nanowires in which the diameter of CdTe nanoparticles decreased with the distance from the nanowire axis. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the outside layer of nanoparticles to the central nanowire was observed for nanowires conjugated with 4.1 nm CdTe. Addition of 3.2 nm CdTe resulted in a red-orange-green optical progression with band gaps of CdTe decreasing toward the axis of the superstructure. In this case, 4-fold luminescence enhancement of the nanowire luminescence was observed and was attributed to multistep FRET. This observation indicated the accumulation of photogenerated excitons in the cascade terminal. A simple model of multiconjugated superstructure with cascade energy transfer is developed and used to describe and understand the experimental data. The experimental data and theoretical model suggest the possibility of utilization of the prepared superstructures with radial symmetry in several classes of optoelectronic devices including nanomaterials for energy collection. They can also be a convenient model object for the investigation of methods of energy funneling in nanoscale assemblies.

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