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Neuroimage. 2006 Feb 1;29(3):764-73. Epub 2005 Oct 10.

Localizing human visual gamma-band activity in frequency, time and space.

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F.C. Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


Neuronal gamma-band (30-100 Hz) synchronization subserves fundamental functions in neuronal processing. However, different experimental approaches differ widely in their success in finding gamma-band activity. We aimed at linking animal and human studies of gamma-band activity and at preparing optimized methods for an in-depth investigation of the mechanisms and functions of gamma-band activity and gamma-band coherence in humans. In the first step described here, we maximized the signal-to-noise ratio with which we can observe visually induced gamma-band activity in human magnetoencephalographic recordings. We used a stimulus and task design that evoked strong gamma-band activity in animals and combined it with multi-taper methods for spectral analysis and adaptive spatial filtering for source analysis. With this approach, we found human visual gamma-band activity very reliably across subjects and across multiple recording sessions of a given subject. While increases in gamma-band activity are typically accompanied by decreases in alpha- and beta-band activity, the gamma-band enhancement was often the spectral component with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, some subjects demonstrated two clearly separate visually induced gamma bands, one around 40 Hz and another between 70 and 80 Hz. Gamma-band activity was sustained for the entire stimulation period, which was up to 3 s. The sources of gamma-band activity were in the calcarine sulcus in all subjects. The results localize human visual gamma-band activity in frequency, time and space and the described methods allow its further investigation with great sensitivity.

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