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Science. 2005 Oct 7;310(5745):116-9.

Failure to detect mismatches between intention and outcome in a simple decision task.

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Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund University, Kungshuset LundagÄrd, 222 22 Lund, Sweden.


A fundamental assumption of theories of decision-making is that we detect mismatches between intention and outcome, adjust our behavior in the face of error, and adapt to changing circumstances. Is this always the case? We investigated the relation between intention, choice, and introspection. Participants made choices between presented face pairs on the basis of attractiveness, while we covertly manipulated the relationship between choice and outcome that they experienced. Participants failed to notice conspicuous mismatches between their intended choice and the outcome they were presented with, while nevertheless offering introspectively derived reasons for why they chose the way they did. We call this effect choice blindness.

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