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Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Nov 15;14(22):3539-48. Epub 2005 Oct 6.

Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human vitamin D receptor promoter change protein-DNA complex formation and are associated with height and vitamin D status in adolescent girls.

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Inserm U561, Hôpital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris, France.


Numerous association studies have dealt with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding and intronic regions of the human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) gene. We have hypothesized that phenotypic traits may also be associated with variations in VDR expression due to the presence of SNPs in promoter regions. In this work, we have studied two SNPs located 1521 bp (G/C) and 1012 bp (A/G) upstream of the transcriptional start site of the main human VDR gene promoter. One base-change in any of the two variant sites led to a dramatic change in protein-DNA complex formation using nuclear extracts from HEK293, Caco-2 and COS-7 cells. Genetic analysis of 185 healthy adolescent girls evidenced two major haplotypes: 1521G/1012A and 1521C/1012G and three main genotypes: homozygous for 1521G/1012A (21.1%), homozygous for 1521C/1012G (17.3%) and heterozygous 1521CG/1012GA (57.3%). On the basis of transfection data, promoter activity was nearly 2-fold higher with the 1521G/1012A haplotype, when compared with the 1521C/1012G haplotype. Clinical and biological association study in the adolescent cohort showed that girls with a CC/GG genotype had (i) lower circulating levels of 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, with no detectable consequence on calcium metabolism, (ii) lower serum IGF-1 levels and (iii) smaller height from 11 years of age up to adult height.

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