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[Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy: report of 76 cases and review of the literature].

[Article in French]

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1
Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique et Médecine de la Reproduction, CHU de Caen, avenue Georges-Clémenceau, 14033 Caen Cedex.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Obstetrical prognosis for women suffering from Crohn's disease and from ulcerative colitis, and consequences of pregnancy on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Retrospective study, of 76 pregnancies, after the diagnosis of IBD among 77 women (33 ulcerative colitis, 44 Crohn's disease).

RESULTS:

Pregnancy did not modify the evolutive profile of IBD. No particular gravity of IBD revealed during pregnancy or post-partum was noticed. The outcome of the 54 pregnancies associated with quiescent IBD was the same as in the general population. Five of ten pregnancies started during an active period of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis ended in fetal loss (3 spontaneous abortions, 2 medical terminations). In women with a first acute episode or IBD reactivation during pregnancy (n=12), one-third of the newborns were low weight for gestational age, one-third were born preterm and only one-third were term babies with normal weight. Vaginal delivery did not trigger development or exacerbation of perianal Crohn's disease (n=20). Cesarean section was performed in 2 with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n=4) and 1 patient with an ileo-rectal anastomosis (n=3) to avoid injury to the anal sphincter. Ileostomy (n=2) did not contraindicate delivery.

CONCLUSION:

Control of IBD is the main obstetrical factor for prognosis. Starting pregnancy can be advised if the disease is quiescent, with rapid and efficient management of possible flare-ups. Delivery route must be determined on a case-by-case basis, each considering pregestational anal continence and the clinical presentation of the perineum.

PMID:
16208201
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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