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Int J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;44(10):837-40.

Assessment of frequency, transmission, and genitourinary complications of enterobiasis (pinworms).

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Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.



Pinworms are the most common helminth infection in the USA and Western Europe, with prevalence rates in some communities of as high as 30-50%. Pinworms generally live in the gastrointestinal tract, and helminth infestations have been noted in over one-quarter of acute appendectomies on histologic examination.


Although transmission is often attributed to the ingestion of infective eggs by nail biting and inadequate hand washing, inhalation and ingestion of airborne eggs also occur. The female Enterobius vermicularis migrates nightly to the perianal area to deposit her eggs, but some worms find their way into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract, producing an array of symptoms. More consideration of this entity is justified in patients presenting with genitourinary complaints not responding to normal therapies. In the treatment of pinworms affecting genitourinary organs, treatment with possibly two oral agents, namely mebendazole and ivermectin, and a topical therapy for the eggs may be warranted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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