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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):466-75. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0818, USA. tyaksh@ucsd.edu

Abstract

Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) forms are expressed in spinal cord, and inhibiting spinal PLA(2) induces a potent antihyperalgesia. Here, we examined the antihyperalgesic effects after systemic and i.t. delivery of four compounds constructed with a common motif consisting of a 2-oxoamide with a hydrocarbon tail and a four-carbon tether. These molecules were characterized for their ability to block group IVA calcium-dependent PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) and group VIA calcium-independent PLA(2) (iPLA(2)) in inhibition assays using human recombinant enzyme. The rank ordering of potency in blocking group IVA cPLA(2) was AX048 (ethyl 4-[(2-oxohexadecanoyl)amino]butanoate), AX006 (4-[(2-oxohexadecanoyl)amino]butanoic acid), and AX057 (tert-butyl 4-[(2-oxohexadecanoyl)amino]butanoate) > AX010 (methyl 4-[(2-oxohexadecanoyl)amino]butanoate) and for inhibiting group VIA iPLA(2) was AX048, AX057 > AX006, and AX010. No agent altered recombinant cyclooxygenase activity. In vivo, i.t. (30 mug) and systemic (0.2-3 mg/kg i.p.) AX048 blocked carrageenan hyperalgesia and after systemic delivery in a model of spinally mediated hyperalgesia induced by i.t. substance P (SP). The other agents were without activity. In rats prepared with lumbar i.t. loop dialysis catheters, SP evoked spinal prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release. AX048 alone inhibited PGE(2) release. Intrathecal SR141617, a cannabinoid CB1 inhibitor at doses that blocked the effects of i.t. anandamide had no effect upon i.t. AX048. These results suggest that AX048 is the first systemically bioavailable compound with a significant affinity for group IVA cPLA(2), which produces a potent antihyperalgesia. The other agents, although demonstrating enzymatic activity in cell-free assays, appear unable to gain access to the intracellular PLA(2) toward which their action is targeted.

PMID:
16203828
DOI:
10.1124/jpet.105.091686
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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