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Exp Eye Res. 2006 Apr;82(4):588-96. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

JNK and ERK MAP kinases mediate induction of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 following hyperosmolar stress in human limbal epithelial cells.

Author information

1
Ocular Surface Center, Cullen Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin Street, NC-205, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

Hyperosmolarity has been recognized to be a pro-inflammatory stress to the corneal epithelium. The cell signalling pathways linking hyperosmolar stress and inflammation have not been well elucidated. This study investigated whether exposure of human limbal epithelial cells to hyperosmotic stress activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and induces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL) -1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and the C-X-C chemokine IL-8. Primary human limbal epithelial cultures in normal osmolar media (312 mOsM) were exposed to media with higher osmolarity (400-500 mOsM) by adding 50-90 mM NaCl, with or without SB202190, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway, PD 98059, an inhibitor of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, dexamethasone or doxycycline for different lengths of time. The conditioned media were collected after 24 hr of treatment for ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from cultures treated for 6 hr for semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Cells treated for 15-60 min were lysed in RIPA buffer and subjected to Western blot with phospho (p)-specific antibodies against p-JNK and p-ERK. The concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 proteins in 24 hr conditioned media of limbal epithelial cells progressively increased as the media osmolarity increased from 312 to 500 mOsM. Active p-JNK-1/p-JNK-2 and p-ERK-1/p-ERK-2 were detected by Western blot and peaked at 60 min in cells exposed to hyperosmolar media. The levels of p-JNK-1/p-JNK-2 and p-ERK1/p-ERK2 were positively correlated with the medium osmolarity. SB202190, PD98059 and doxycycline markedly suppressed the levels of p-JNK-1/p-JNK-2 and/or p-ERK1/p-ERK2, as well as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 mRNAs and proteins stimulated by hyperosmolar media. These findings provide direct evidence that hyperosmolarity induces inflammation in human limbal epithelial cells by increasing expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a process that appears to be mediated through activation of the JNK and ERK MAPK signalling pathways. The efficacy of doxycycline in treating ocular surface diseases may be due to its ability to suppress JNK and ERK signalling activation and inflammatory mediator production in the limbal epithelium.

PMID:
16202406
PMCID:
PMC2198933
DOI:
10.1016/j.exer.2005.08.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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