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Drugs Today (Barc). 2005 Jul;41 Suppl B:19-26.

Extraesophageal manifestations of GERD: diagnosis and therapy.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.


Extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can include upper airway disorders, asthma and chronic cough. They have a common pathophysiology, involving microaspiration of acid into the larynx and pharynx, and vagally mediated bronchospasm and laryngospasm. The role of extraesophageal reflux (EER) in such disorders is underdiagnosed due to the often silent symptoms and difficult confirmation of diagnosis. Laryngeal examination and quantitative evaluation of findings using the reflux finding score are essential to diagnosis and treatment. Long-term high-dose proton pump inhibitor therapy is the first-line approach to controlling symptoms. Use of treatment algorithms is necessary to manage and accurately diagnose the cause of nonresponse to treatment.

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