Send to

Choose Destination
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2005 Oct;33(5):551-63.

Family correlates of oppositional and conduct disorders in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.


Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinic-referred families (n = 149) were diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria. Parents completed measures of parenting practices. Comorbid ODD and CD were significantly associated with maternal negative/ineffective discipline. Comorbid CD, but not ODD, was significantly associated with lack of maternal warmth and involvement, paternal negative/ineffective discipline, and with paternal Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). However, the risk of CD posed by parenting appeared concentrated among children without a father having APD. While consistent discipline appears important for addressing comorbid ODD and CD, paternal psychopathology and the quality of the relationship between mother and child may pose risk specifically for comorbid CD. Efforts to prevent and/or treat CD should consider not only provision of structure and prudent discipline, but also the affective qualities of the relationship between the primary caretaker and child.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center