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Arch Bronconeumol. 2005 Sep;41(9):493-8.

[Assessment of behavioral dependence with the Glover-Nilsson test in smoking cessation treatment].

[Article in Spanish]

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  • 1Departamento de Medicina y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.



To assess behavioral dependence using the Glover-Nilsson test and determine its association with successful smoking cessation.


An analytical longitudinal study was carried out, the target population of which consisted of smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation clinic for treatment. The following variables were examined: age, sex, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test), psychoactive drug use, prior attempts at quitting, and behavioral dependence measured with the Glover-Nilsson test. The most recent version of this test is an 11-item questionnaire which classifies behavioral dependence according to the scores obtained: mild (<12), moderate (12-22), severe (23-33), and very severe (>33). Successful cessation was defined as self-reported abstinence confirmed by measurement of expired CO level (< or =10 ppm). Results were expressed as means (SD) for quantitative variables and percentages and absolute frequencies for qualitative variables.


The study population consisted of 167 smokers--89 men (53.3%) and 78 women (46.7%)--with a mean age of 43.5 (9.9) years, a nicotine dependence score (Fagerström test) of 6.5 (2.2) points, and a Glover-Nilsson score of 23.3 (6.6). Of the study population, 65.9% (n=110) had made previous attempts at quitting. Abstinence at 3 months was 55.1% (n=92). Differences between the sexes were found for age and previous attempts at quitting. Younger patients had higher scores on the Glover-Nilsson test and the Fagerström test and lower abstinence rates.


Severe behavioral dependence can result in less successful cessation outcome. All aspects related to dependence must be assessed to help select the most adequate pharmacological and psychological treatment for results to be optimized.

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