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Anal Biochem. 2005 Nov 1;346(1):167-75. Epub 2005 Aug 31.

Quantitative heteroduplex analysis for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping.

Author information

1
Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. palais@math.utah.edu

Abstract

High-resolution melting of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products can detect heterozygous mutations and most homozygous mutations without electrophoretic or chromatographic separations. However, some homozygous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) have melting curves identical to that of the wild-type, as predicted by nearest neighbor thermodynamic models. In these cases, if DNA of a known reference genotype is added to each unknown before PCR, quantitative heteroduplex analysis can differentiate heterozygous, homozygous, and wild-type genotypes if the fraction of reference DNA is chosen carefully. Theoretical calculations suggest that melting curve separation is proportional to heteroduplex content difference and that the addition of reference homozygous DNA at one seventh of total DNA results in the best discrimination between the three genotypes of biallelic SNPs. This theory was verified experimentally by quantitative analysis of both high-resolution melting and temperature-gradient capillary electrophoresis data. Reference genotype proportions other than one seventh of total DNA were suboptimal and failed to distinguish some genotypes. Optimal mixing before PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis permits genotyping of all SNPs with a single closed-tube analysis.

PMID:
16188219
DOI:
10.1016/j.ab.2005.08.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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