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BMJ. 2005 Oct 8;331(7520):817. Epub 2005 Sep 23.

Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged > or =75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial.

Author information

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand. john.campbell@stonebow.otago.ac.nz

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision.

DESIGN:

Randomised controlled trial.

SETTING:

Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand.

PARTICIPANTS:

391 women and men aged > or =75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up.

INTERVENTIONS:

Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme.

RESULTS:

Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost NZ650 dollars (234 pounds sterling, 344 euros, US432 dollars) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented.

CONCLUSION:

The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873.

PMID:
16183652
PMCID:
PMC1246082
DOI:
10.1136/bmj.38601.447731.55
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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