Send to

Choose Destination
Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Nov 10;154(1):62-77. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

Validation of a 21-locus autosomal SNP multiplex for forensic identification purposes.

Author information

Research & Development, The Forensic Science Service, Solihull Parkway, Birmingham B37 7YN, UK.


A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex has been developed to analyse highly degraded and low copy number (LCN) DNA template, i.e. <100 pg, for scenarios including mass disaster identification. The multiplex consists of 20 autosomal non-coding loci plus Amelogenin for sex determination, amplified in a single tube PCR reaction and visualised on the Applied Biosystems 3100 capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Allele-specific primers tailed with shared universal tag sequences were designed to speed multiplex design and balance the amplification efficiencies of all loci through the use of a single reverse and two differentially labelled allele denoting forward universal primers. As the multiplex is intended for use with samples too degraded for conventional profiling, a computer program was specifically developed to aid interpretation. Critical factors taken into account by the software include empirically determined extremes of heterozygous imbalance (Hb) and the drop-out threshold (Ht) defined as the maximum peak height of a surviving heterozygous allele, where its partner may have dropped out. The discrimination power of the system is estimated at 1 in 4.5 million, using a White Caucasian population database. Comparisons using artificially degraded samples profiled with both the SNP multiplex and AMPFISTR SGM plus (Applied Biosystems) demonstrated a greater likelihood of obtaining a profile using SNPs for certain sample types. Saliva stains degraded for 147 days generated an 81% complete SNP profile whilst short tandem repeats (STRs) were only 18% complete; similarly blood degraded for 243 days produced full SNP profiles but only 9% with STRs. Reproducibility studies showed concordance between SNP profiles for different sample types, such as blood, saliva, semen and hairs, for the same individual, both within and between different DNA extracts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center