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Microbes Infect. 2006 Jan;8(1):157-71. Epub 2005 Aug 15.

Flavivirus induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving RIG-I-dependent IRF-3 and PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB activation.

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Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.


In this study, we found that infection with flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2), leads to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene expression in a virus-replication- and de novo protein-synthesis-dependent manner. NF-kappaB activation is essential for IFN-beta induction in JEV- and DEN-2-infected cells. However, these two viruses seem to preferentially target different members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family. The activation of constitutively expressed IRF-3, characterized by slower gel mobility, dimer formation, and nuclear translocation, is more evident in JEV-infected cells. Other members of the IRF family, such as IRF-1 and IRF-7 are also induced by DEN-2, but not by JEV infection. The upstream molecules responsible for IRF-3 and NF-kappaB activation were further studied. Evidently, a cellular RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), and a cellular kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), are required for flavivirus-induced IRF-3 and NF-kappaB activation, respectively. Therefore, we suggest that JEV and DEN-2 initiate the host innate immune response through a molecular mechanism involving RIG-I/IRF-3 and PI3K/NF-kappaB signaling pathways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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