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Neuroscience. 2005;136(1):193-203. Epub 2005 Sep 21.

The distribution of serotonergic fibers in the macaque monkey amygdala: an immunohistochemical study using antisera to 5-hydroxytryptamine.

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Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The M.I.N.D. Institute and the California National Primate Research Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


Though both the amygdala and the serotonin system appear to play critical roles in regulating fear and anxiety, little is known regarding the organization of serotonergic inputs to the primate amygdala. The present study employed immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of serotonin fibers in the macaque amygdala. The brains of three adult male Macaca fascicularis monkeys were prepared for histological analysis using a polyclonal antibody to serotonin. The macaque amygdala is densely innervated by serotonergic fibers and demonstrates a distinctive pattern of fiber distribution and density among the 13 nuclei and cortical areas. The highest density of 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactive fibers is observed in the central nucleus, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the paralaminar nucleus, the anterior amygdaloid area and a small region of the amygdalohippocampal area. Moderate fiber densities are found in portions of the basal, lateral, and intercalated nuclei. The lowest fiber densities are observed in the accessory basal, posterior cortical, anterior cortical and medial nuclei, and in subregions of the periamygdaloid cortex. The present study provides evidence that the serotonergic system can have substantial influence on the ongoing activity of the amygdaloid complex.

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