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Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Dec;19(6):875-93. Epub 2005 Sep 19.

Female urethral diverticula.

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Division of Urogynaecology & Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore, Singapore 119074.


Urethral diverticula are frequently under-diagnosed. The pathogenesis of this condition is poorly understood, and these lesions represent a spectrum of disorders ranging from isolated suburethral cysts to herniation of the urethral lining into the vaginal mucosa. Women with this disorder frequently complain of a host of symptoms referable to the lower urinary and genital tracts. Accurate diagnosis is based on history and clinical evaluation. Perineal ultrasound and MRI are often helpful. Repeated courses of antibiotics and urethral dilatation often fail to resolve the problem, and definitive intervention usually requires surgical excision to provide relief. This chapter describes the current management of this condition, and it heralds a re-look at the patho-aetiology in view of recent MRI findings of symptomatic non-communicating microcystic lesions.

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