Send to

Choose Destination
Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005 Nov 5;92(3):277-98.

Global expression profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells during industrial-close fed-batch fermentations with different nitrogen sources.

Author information

Institute of Microbiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, F.L. Jahnstrasse 15, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.


A detailed gene expression analysis of industrial-close Bacillus subtilis fed-batch fermentation processes with casamino acids as the only nitrogen source and with a reduced casamino acid concentration but supplemented by ammonia was carried out. Although glutamine and arginine are supposed to be the preferred nitrogen sources of B. subtilis, we demonstrate that a combined feeding of ammonia and casamino acids supports cell growth under fed-batch fermentation conditions. The transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed that the additional feeding of ammonia in combination with a reduced amino acid concentration results in a significantly lower expression level of the glnAR or tnrA genes, coding for proteins, which are mainly involved in the nitrogen metabolism of B. subtilis. However, the mRNA levels of the genes of the ilvBHC-leuABD and hom-thrCB operons were significantly increased, indicating a valine, leucine, isoleucine, and threonine limitation under these fermentation conditions. In contrast, during the fermentation with casamino acids as the only nitrogen source, several genes, which play a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism of B. subtilis (e.g., glnAR, nasCDE, nrgAB, and ureABC), were up-regulated, indicating a nitrogen limitation under these conditions. Furthermore, increased expression of genes, which are involved in motility and chemotaxis (e.g., hag, fliT) and in acetoin metabolism (e.g., acoABCL), was determined during the fermentation with the mixed nitrogen source of casamino acids and ammonia, indicating a carbon limitation under these fermentation conditions. Under high cell density and slow growth rate conditions a weak up-regulation of autolysis genes could be observed as well as the induction of a number of genes involved in motility, chemotaxis and general stress response. Results of this study allowed the selection of marker genes, which could be used for the monitoring of B. subtilis fermentation processes. The data suggest for example acoA as a marker gene for glucose limitation or glnA as an indicator for nitrogen limitation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center