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Horm Metab Res. 2005 Sep;37(9):538-44.

Thyroid hormones, cytokines, physical training and metabolic control.

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Sektion Sport- und Rehabilitationsmedizin, Medizinische Klinik, Universit├Ąt Ulm, Ulm, Germany.


During the acute training response, peripheral cellular mechanisms are mainly metabolostatic to achieve energy supply. During prolonged training, glycogen deficiency occurs; this is associated with increased expression of local cytokines, and decreased insulin secretion and beta-adrenergic stimulation and lipolysis in adipose tissue which looses energy. This is indicated by decrease of adipocyte hormone leptin, which has inhibitory effects on excitatory hypothalamic neurons. Leptin, insulin, and cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) contribute to the metabolic error signal to the hypothalamus which result in decrease of hypothalamic release hormones and sympathoadrenergic stimulation. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is correlated to the metabolic hormones leptin and insulin, and may be used as indicator of metabolic control. Because the hypothalamus integrates various error signals (metabolic, hormonal, sensory afferents, and central stimuli), the pituitary's releasing hormones represent the functional status of an athlete. Long-term overtraining will lead to downregulation of hypothalamic hormonal and sympathoadrenergic responses, catabolism, and fatigue. These changes contribute to myopathy with predominant expression of slow muscle fiber type and inadequacy in performance. Thyroid hormones are closely involved in the training response and metabolic control.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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