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Int J Urol. 2005 Aug;12(8):717-20.

Urodynamic findings in children with cerebral palsy.

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Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Department of Urology, Istanbul, Turkey.



More than one-third of children with cerebral palsy are expected to present with dysfunctional voiding symptoms. The voiding dysfunction symptoms of the cerebral palsy patients in the present study were documented.


Of the study group, 16 were girls and 20 were boys (mean age: 8.2 years). Children with cerebral palsy were evaluated with urodynamics consisting of flow rate, filling and voiding cystometry, and electromyography findings of the external urethral sphincter to determine lower urinary tract functions. Treatment protocols were based on the urodynamic findings. Anticholinergic agents to reduce uninhibited contractions and to increase bladder capacity were used as a treatment. Clean intermittent catheterization and behavioral modification were used for incomplete emptying.


Of the children, 24 (66.6%) were found to have dysfunctional voiding symptoms. Daytime urinary incontinence (47.2%) and difficulty urinating (44.4%) were the most common symptoms. Urodynamic findings showed that neurogenic detrusor overactivity (involuntary contractions during bladder filling) with a low bladder capacity was present in 17 (47.2%) children, whereas detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia was present in four patients (11%). The mean bladder capacity of patients with a neurogenic bladder was 52.2% of the expected capacity.


The present study concluded that voiding dysfunction was seen in more than half of the children with cerebral palsy, which is a similar result to other published studies. We propose that a rational plan of management of these patients depends on the evaluation of the lower urinary tract dysfunction with urodynamic studies. These children benefit from earlier referral for assessment and treatment.

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