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Environ Pollut. 2006 Mar;140(2):257-68. Epub 2005 Sep 15.

Sources of errors in assessing ozone visible symptoms on native vegetation.

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Department of Plant Biology, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, 50144 Florence, Italy.


This paper aims to identify the problems regarding the evaluation of ozone (and ozone-like) symptoms, by examining the results of the 4th UN/ECE ICP-Forests Intercalibration Course for the assessment of ozone-induced visible symptoms. Trees, shrubs and herbaceous species were evaluated in a tree nursery, at Lattecaldo (Switzerland) and under open field conditions at Moggio (Italy). The main findings were: (i) the most expert surveyors tended to be grouped in the same cluster and, during the field exercises, they tended to assess in a more conservative manner compared to the less trained participants; (ii) the agreement was greater in assessing the absence rather than the presence of symptoms; (iii) typical interveinal stippling on the upper leaf surface was more accurately evaluated than discoloration; (iv) uncertainties resulted mainly for species which showed greater variability in their symptom manifestation, and for certain herbaceous species.

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