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ASAIO J. 2005 Jul-Aug;51(4):329-35.

In vitro evaluation of multiobjective hemodynamic control of a heart-assist pump.

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LaunchPoint Technologies, LLC, Goleta, CA, USA.


Ventricular assist devices now clinically used for treatment of end-stage heart failure require responsive and reliable hemodynamic control to accommodate the continually changing demands of the body. This is an essential ingredient to maintaining a high quality of life. To satisfy this need, a control algorithm involving a trade-off between optimal perfusion and avoidance of ventricular collapse has been developed. An optimal control strategy has been implemented in vitro that combines two competing indices: representing venous return and prevalence of suction. The former is derived from the first derivative of diastolic flow with speed, and the latter derived from the harmonic spectra of the flow signal. The responsiveness of the controller to change in preload and afterload were evaluated in a mock circulatory simulator using a HeartQuest centrifugal blood pump (CF4b, MedQuest Products, Salt Lake City, UT). To avoid the need for flow sensors, a state estimator was used, based on the back-EMF of the actuator. The multiobjective algorithm has demonstrated more robust performance as compared with controllers relying on individual indices.

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