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J Neurosurg. 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):163-6.

Golf-associated head injury in the pediatric population: a common sports injury.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.



Golf-related injuries constitute a common type of sports injury in the pediatric population. The increase in the frequency of these injuries is largely attributed to the increase in the popularity of golf and greater use of golf carts by children.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and complications associated with golf-related injuries in the pediatric population and, by doing so, assist in the prevention of such injuries. We reviewed the charts of 2546 pediatric patients evaluated by the neurosurgery service at the authors' institution over a 6-year period. There were 64 cases of sports-related injuries. Of these, 15 (23%) were golf-related, making these injuries the second-largest group of sports-related injuries. Depressed skull fracture was the most common injury observed. Neurosurgical intervention was required in 33% of the cases. With rare exceptions, patients made good recoveries during a mean follow-up period of 22.2 months. One death occurred due to uncontrollable cerebral edema following a golf cart accident. One child required shunt placement and several revisions following an injury sustained from a golf ball.


Children should be advised on the proper use of golf equipment as a preventive measure to avoid these injuries. Precautionary guidelines and safety training guidelines should be established. The institution of a legal minimum age required to operate a golf cart should be considered.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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