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J Mol Evol. 2005 Oct;61(4):498-512. Epub 2005 Sep 12.

Expanding metabolic networks: scopes of compounds, robustness, and evolution.

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Institute of Biology, Department of Theoretical Biophysics, Humboldt University Berlin, Invalidenstr. 42, 10115 Berlin, Germany.,


A new method for the mathematical analysis of large metabolic networks is presented. Based on the fact that the occurrence of a metabolic reaction generally requires the existence of other reactions providing its substrates, series of metabolic networks are constructed. In each step of the corresponding expansion process those reactions are incorporated whose substrates are made available by the networks of the previous generations. The method is applied to the set of all metabolic reactions included in the KEGG database. Starting with one or more seed compounds, the expansion results in a final network whose compounds define the scope of the seed. Scopes of all metabolic compounds are calculated and it is shown that large parts of cellular metabolism can be considered as the combined scope of simple building blocks. Analyses of various expansion processes reveal crucial metabolites whose incorporation allows for the increase in network complexity. Among these metabolites are common cofactors such as NAD+, ATP, and coenzyme A. We demonstrate that the outcome of network expansion is in general very robust against elimination of single or few reactions. There exist, however, crucial reactions whose elimination results in a dramatic reduction of scope sizes. It is hypothesized that the expansion process displays characteristics of the evolution of metabolism such as the temporal order of the emergence of metabolic pathways.

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