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Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005 Dec;34(8):823-33. Epub 2005 Sep 9.

Pediatric facial fractures: recent advances in prevention, diagnosis and management.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Erratum in

  • Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Jan;35(1):1.

Corrected and republished in


During the last 25 years, there have been considerable advances in the prevention, diagnosis and management of craniomaxillofacial injuries in children. When compared to adults, the pattern of fractures and frequency of associated injuries are similar but the overall incidence is much lower. Diagnosis is more difficult than in adults and fractures are easily overlooked. Clinical diagnosis is best confirmed by computed tomographic (CT) scans. Treatment is usually performed without delay and can be limited to observation or closed reduction in non-displaced or minimally displaced fractures. Operative management should involve minimal manipulation and may be modified by the stage of skeletal and dental development. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation is indicated for severely displaced fractures. Primary bone grafting is preferred over secondary reconstruction and alloplastic materials should be avoided when possible. Children require long-term follow-up to monitor potential growth abnormalities. This article is a review of the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of facial fractures in children.

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