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Carbohydr Res. 2005 Oct 31;340(15):2376-91.

Crystalline structure analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide by means of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy.

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  • 1Department of Textile Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 500-757, Republic of Korea.


Crystalline structures of cellulose (named as Cell 1), NaOH-treated cellulose (Cell 2), and subsequent CO2-treated cellulose (Cell 2-C) were analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II was observed by X-ray diffraction for Cell 2 treated with 15-20 wt% NaOH. Subsequent treatment with CO2 also transformed the Cell 2-C treated with 5-10 wt% NaOH. Many of the FTIR bands including 2901, 1431, 1282, 1236, 1202, 1165, 1032, and 897 cm(-1) were shifted to higher wave number (by 2-13 cm(-1)). However, the bands at 3352, 1373, and 983 cm(-1) were shifted to lower wave number (by 3-95 cm(-1)). In contrast to the bands at 1337, 1114, and 1058 cm(-1), the absorbances measured at 1263, 993, 897, and 668 cm(-1) were increased. The FTIR spectra of hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibrations at around 3352 cm(-1) were resolved into three bands for cellulose I and four bands for cellulose II, assuming that all the vibration modes follow Gaussian distribution. The bands of 1 (3518 cm(-1)), 2 (3349 cm(-1)), and 3 (3195 cm(-1)) were related to the sum of valence vibration of an H-bonded OH group and an intramolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH ...O-6, intramolecular hydrogen bond of 3-OH...O-5 and the intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-O...HO-3', respectively. Compared with the bands of cellulose I, a new band of 4 (3115 cm(-1)) related to intermolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH...O-2' and/or intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-OH...O-2' in cellulose II appeared. The crystallinity index (CI) was obtained by X-ray diffraction [CI(XD)] and FTIR spectroscopy [CI(IR)]. Including absorbance ratios such as A1431,1419/A897,894 and A1263/A1202,1200, the CI(IR) was evaluated by the absorbance ratios using all the characteristic absorbances of cellulose. The CI(XD) was calculated by the method of Jayme and Knolle. In addition, X-ray diffraction curves, with and without amorphous halo correction, were resolved into portions of cellulose I and cellulose II lattice. From the ratio of the peak area, that is, peak area of cellulose I (or cellulose II)/total peak area, CI(XD) were divided into CI(XD-CI) for cellulose I and CI(XD-CII) for cellulose II. The correlation between CI(XD-CI) (or CI(XD-CII)) and CI(IR) was evaluated, and the bands at 2901 (2802), 1373 (1376), 897 (894), 1263, 668 cm(-1) were good for the internal standard (or denominator) of CI(IR), which increased the correlation coefficient. Both fraction of the absorbances showing peak shift were assigned as the alternate components of CI(IR). The crystallite size was decreased to constant value for Cell 2 treated at >or= 15 wt% NaOH. The crystallite size of Cell 2-C (cellulose II) was smaller than that of Cell 2 (cellulose I) treated at 5-10 wt% NaOH. But the crystallite size of Cell 2-C (cellulose II) was larger than that of Cell 2 (cellulose II) treated at 15-20 wt% NaOH.

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