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Cell. 2005 Sep 9;122(5):659-67.

Cellular and molecular signatures of muscle regeneration: current concepts and controversies in adult myogenesis.

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  • 1Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Pathology Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.


Adult skeletal muscle generates force in a controlled and directed manner through the contraction of highly specialized, postmitotic, multinucleated myofibers. Life-long muscle function relies on maintenance and regeneration of myofibers through a highly regulated process beginning with activation of normally quiescent muscle precursor cells and proceeding with formation of proliferating progenitors that fuse to generate differentiated myofibers. In this review, we describe the historical basis and current evidence for the identification of satellite cells as adult muscle stem cells, critically evaluate contributions of other cells to adult myogenesis, and summarize existing data regarding the origins, genetic markers, and molecular regulation of satellite cells in normal, diseased, and aged muscle.

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