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Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 1;41(7):930-8. Epub 2005 Aug 29.

Reduction of antibiotic use in the community reduces the rate of colonization with penicillin G-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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Centre de Resource en Biostatistiques, Epidémiologie et Pharmacoépidemiologie, Institut Pasteur, Unit 657, INSERM, France.



There is a lack of evidence documenting the impact of optimized antibiotic use on the rates of colonization with penicillin G-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP) in children. This study evaluates the effect of community-based intervention strategies on the prevalence of pnsp colonization.


A controlled, population-based pharmacoepidemiological trial was conducted from January through May 2000. Three French geographic areas were selected on the basis of demographic similarities. Two intervention strategies were implemented: (1) reduced antibiotic use, which was achieved by not prescribing antibiotics for presumed viral respiratory tract infections (the prescription-reduction group); and (2) better adaptation of dose and duration (the dose/duration group). A control group received no intervention. The target population was children aged 3-6 years who were attending kindergarten. Oropharyngeal pneumococcus colonization and antibiotic use were monitored throughout the 5-month study.


The prescription-reduction, dose/duration, and control groups included 601, 483, and 405 children, respectively. The interventions induced significantly larger decreases in antibiotic use in the prescription-reduction group (-18.8%) and dose/duration group (-17.1%) than in the control group (-3.8%), and the rates of PNSP colonization were initially similar for the 3 groups (52.5%, 55.1%, and 50.0%, respectively). At the end of the 5-month study, the rates of PNSP colonization were 34.5% for the prescription-reduction group (P=.05) and 44.3% for the dose/duration group (P=.8), compared with 46.2% for the control group.


Intensive educational strategies aimed at optimizing antibiotic use can significantly reduce the rate of PNSP colonization in areas with high resistance rates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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