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Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7782-9.

HYAL1 hyaluronidase in prostate cancer: a tumor promoter and suppressor.

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Department of Urology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.


Hyaluronidases degrade hyaluronic acid, which promotes metastasis. HYAL1 type hyaluronidase is an independent prognostic indicator of prostate cancer progression and a biomarker for bladder cancer. However, it is controversial whether hyaluronidase (e.g., HYAL1) functions as a tumor promoter or as a suppressor. We stably transfected prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC-3 ML, with HYAL1-sense (HYAL1-S), HYAL1-antisense (HYAL1-AS), or vector DNA. HYAL1-AS transfectants were not generated for PC-3 ML because it expresses little HYAL1. HYAL1-S transfectants produced < or = 42 milliunits (moderate overproducers) or > or = 80 milliunits hyaluronidase activity (high producers). HYAL1-AS transfectants produced <10% hyaluronidase activity when compared with vector transfectants (18-24 milliunits). Both blocking HYAL1 expression and high HYAL1 production resulted in a 4- to 5-fold decrease in prostate cancer cell proliferation. HYAL1-AS transfectants had a G2-M block due to decreased cyclin B1, cdc25c, and cdc2/p34 expression and cdc2/p34 kinase activity. High HYAL1 producers had a 3-fold increase in apoptotic activity and mitochondrial depolarization when compared with vector transfectants and expressed activated proapoptotic protein WOX1. Blocking HYAL1 expression inhibited tumor growth by 4- to 7-fold, whereas high HYAL1 producing transfectants either did not form tumors (DU145) or grew 3.5-fold slower (PC-3 ML). Whereas vector and moderate HYAL1 producers generated muscle and blood vessel infiltrating tumors, HYAL1-AS tumors were benign and contained smaller capillaries. Specimens of high HYAL1 producers were 99% free of tumor cells. This study shows that, depending on the concentration, HYAL1 functions as a tumor promoter and as a suppressor and provides a basis for anti-hyaluronidase and high-hyaluronidase treatments for cancer.

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