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J Biomech. 2006;39(11):1964-82. Epub 2005 Sep 6.

Numerical simulation of cardiovascular dynamics with healthy and diseased heart valves.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.


This paper presents a new concentrated parameter model for cardiovascular dynamics that includes an innovative model of heart valve dynamics, which is embedded in the overall model of the four chambers of the heart and the systemic and pulmonary circulation loops. The heart chambers are described with a variable elastance model, and the systemic and pulmonary loops are described with modified Windkessel models. In modelling the heart valve dynamics, the various factors that influence the valve motion are examined, and the governing differential equation for valve motion is derived. The heart valve model includes the influence of the blood pressure effect, the friction effect from the tissue, and from blood motion. As improvement from previous works, the contribution of the blood vortex effect in the vicinity of the valve leaflets to valve motion is specially considered. The proposed model is then used in simulation of healthy and certain pathological conditions such as mitral valve stenosis and aortic regurgitation. The predicted results agree well with results illustrated in cardiology textbooks.

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