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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 21;336(2):565-71.

Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity.

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  • 1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and the Brain Research Centre, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada BC V6T 1Z3.


Microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the one-electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to various electron acceptors, such as cytochrome P450s or to some anti-cancer quinone drugs. This results in generation of free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites, which can contribute to the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Recently, a cytosolic NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, NR1, has been described which is highly homologous to the microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we show that over-expression of NR1 in human embryonic kidney cells enhances the cytotoxic action of the model quinone, menadione. Furthermore, we show that a novel human histidine triad protein DCS-1, which is expressed together with NR1 in many tissues, can significantly reduce menadione-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. We also show that DCS-1 binds NF1 and directly modulates its activity. These results suggest that NR1 may play a role in carcinogenicity and cell death associated with one-electron reductions.

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