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Arch Oral Biol. 2005 Oct;50(10):897-908. Epub 2005 Apr 9.

CSF-1, RANKL and OPG regulate osteoclastogenesis during murine tooth eruption.

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Department of Orthodontics, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.


During tooth eruption, osteoclast-mediated bone resorption predominates in alveolar bone along the occlusal surface rather than in bone basal to the tooth. CSF-1, RANKL and OPG, regulatory molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis, are expressed during eruption. However, it is unclear if these cytokines exhibit an expression pattern that correlates with sites of osteoclastogenesis in vivo. To address this issue, mouse mandibles, isolated from 1 to 14 days postnatal, were analysed for osteoclast activity using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining as well as colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression using in situ hybridisation. Results showed that CSF-1, RANKL and OPG are expressed in a distinct temporal and spatial manner. In the occlusal region, osteoclast activity was maximal at day 5 and correlated with a relative high expression of CSF-1 and RANKL compared to OPG. In basal bone at this time point, osteoclast activity decreased despite persistent CSF-1 expression and was associated with increased expression of OPG compared to RANKL. By day 8, osteoclastogenesis declined and correlated with upregulation of OPG at the occlusal and basal regions, with this effect continuing throughout eruption. These findings suggest that the spatiotemporal pattern and relative abundance of CSF-1, RANKL and OPG during eruption are key determinants of site-specific osteoclast activity in bone surrounding the tooth. Targeting these cytokines to specific regions in alveolar bone may provide a mechanism for regulating osteoclastogenesis in dental disorders associated with altered tooth eruption.

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