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J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2005 Apr;37(1):43-52.

The inflammatory reaction in human traumatic oedematous cerebral cortex.

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Institute of Biological Investigations, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela.


The inflammatory reaction surrounding hemorrhagic and perihematomal brain parenchyma has been studied by means of light and transmission electron microscopy in 12 patients with severe traumatic head injuries complicated with subdural or extradural hematoma or hygroma. Perivascular cells, ameboid phagocytic microglial cells, and infiltrated macrophage/monocyte system were observed surrounding perivascular and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic foci. They showed phagocytic activity of degenerated nerve cell processes, and organized proteinaceous edema fluid present in the enlarged extracellular space. Endocytosis by means of clathrin coated vesicles also was observed. Facultative and professional phagocytes exhibited a full repertoire of lysosomes, phagosomes containing nerve cell debris, lipid droplets, and lipofucsin granules. Phagocytic pericytes remaining within the capillary basement membrane were also observed around perivascular hemorrhages. The inflammatory reaction was examined in young and old patients with an evolution time of brain injury ranging from 1 day to 2 years. The inflammatory process developed according to the intensity of traumatic insult, patient age, associated hematoma or hygroma, severity of vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema, and anoxic-ischemic conditions of brain parenchyma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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