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Vet Clin Pathol. 2005 Sep;34(3):264-9.

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a dog.

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Pronto Soccorso Veterinario, Lodi, Italy.


A 3-year-old, spayed, female Boxer was presented because of acute onset of anorexia, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure were detected. The dog was treated with fluids, antiemetics, antibiotics, and diuretics. Despite supportive therapy, the dog's condition worsened, and the owners elected euthanasia. Necropsy revealed disseminated petechiae on the parietal peritoneum and serosal surfaces of the intestinal tract. The histologic lesions were consistent with severe arteritis and microvascular thrombosis involving only the renal and intestinal arterioles. The final diagnosis was hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a rarely described disorder in dogs. The clinical presentation of primarily gastrointestinal clinical signs was similar to that of typical or diarrhea-associated HUS (D+ HUS) in humans (mainly children), which is caused by gastrointestinal proliferation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Bacterial toxins can be adsorbed and cause endothelial injury, activation of hemostasis, and thrombosis, with lesions confined primarily to the kidneys. Although rare, HUS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.

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