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Comput Biol Med. 2006 Nov;36(11):1185-203. Epub 2005 Aug 29.

Non-invasive beat-to-beat cardiac output monitoring by an improved method of transthoracic bioimpedance measurement.

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Institute of Medical Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Krenngasse 37, A-8010 Graz, Austria.


The report describes a method of impedance cardiography using an improved estimate of thoracic volume. The formulas and their implementation in hardware and software are explained and new shortband electrodes are described which generate a good homogeneous thoracic field. Examples of stroke volume and cardiac output curves underline the capabilities of the monitoring system "Task Force Monitor". In several experiments, results are compared to thermodilution as well as to BioZ measurements: the new method excels in comparison with thermodilution and is comparable to the BioZ device. Compared to traditional electrodes, the new shortband electrodes are shown to provide better reproducibility.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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