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J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005 Aug;31(8):1640-7.

In-air thermal imaging comparison of Legacy AdvanTec, Millennium, and Sovereign WhiteStar phacoemulsification systems.

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Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-7002, USA.



To compare the temperature profiles of 3 popular phacoemulsification units (Alcon Legacy AdvanTec, Bausch & Lomb Millennium, and AMO Sovereign WhiteStar) under similar operating conditions in air.


Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.


Phacoemulsification probes from the 3 units were placed side by side in air and imaged in the infrared region using model P60 ThermaCAM (Flir Systems). The highest temperature produced by each probe was measured 10 seconds and 30 seconds after power application. Testing was performed under conditions that might produce a corneal burn during cataract surgery. Irrigation flow was set at the low rate of 1 cc/min to simulate a tight incision. Aspiration flow was set at 0 cc/min to simulate occlusion of the needle lumen. Wound compression was simulated in some tests by suspending 22.6 g weights by rubber bands from the silicone sleeves. Manufacturers' specific and identical silicone sleeves were used to evaluate possible variations in thermal conductivity. The AdvanTec Legacy and Millennium were operated in pulse mode at 15 Hertz; 50% duty cycle; and 10%, 30%, and 50% power. The Sovereign WhiteStar was operated in both C/F (56 Hz, 33% duty cycle) and C/L (33 Hz, 20% duty cycle) modes at the same console power settings. Temperature profiles were determined at a variety of power settings with each system operating in continuous and pulse mode.


Under all experimental conditions (at 10%, 30%, and 50% powers; with and without external weights suspended from the phacoemulsification probes; with manufacturers' and identical silicone sleeves; and in continuous and pulse modes), the Millennium and the Sovereign WhiteStar generated higher temperatures than the Legacy AdvanTec.


Under controlled operating conditions in air and under a variety of power, load, and duty-cycle settings, the Millennium and the Sovereign WhiteStar, operating in both pulse and continuous modes, generated higher peak temperatures than the Legacy AdvanTec.

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