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J Med Primatol. 2005 Oct;34(5-6):243-52.

Naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys: are we closer to understanding why they do not develop AIDS?

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1
Department of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology; Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine; Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. gsilves@rmy.emory.edu

Abstract

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) infection of sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys (Cercocebus atys), a natural host species, does not induce CD4+ T cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) despite chronic high levels of virus replication. In contrast, SIV infection of non-natural host species, such as rhesus macaques (RM), induces a disease that closely resembles AIDS in humans. The mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in SIV-infected SMs are incompletely understood, but certainly reflect a complex evolutionary adaptation whereby the host immune system is not significantly damaged by the highly replicating virus. It is now widely recognized that a better understanding of these mechanisms may provide clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected humans. In this article I discuss five different hypotheses that may account for the non-pathogenic course of infection in SIV-infected SMs and briefly review the available data supporting each of these hypotheses.

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