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Int J Addict. 1992 Jun;27(6):697-706.

Smoking cessation in women: effects of the menstrual cycle.

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Department of Psychology, Polytechnic of East London, Great Britain.


Ten females in the midcycle phase of the menstrual cycle, 10 females in the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, and 10 males agreed to try and stop smoking for two consecutive days. The Smoking Motivation Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS) were completed by all subjects beforehand. On each "no smoking" day, the POMS and a Smoking Withdrawal Questionnaire were completed. Males and midcycle females achieved significantly greater smoking reduction than premenstrual females during the "no smoking" days. Premenstrual females reported becoming significantly more tired, confused, depressed, anxious, and irritable than midcycle females. Midcycle females reported only slight changes in feeling state during cigarette withdrawal. The position of the males was broadly intermediate between the two female groups.

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