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Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Jan 15;445(2):235-44. Epub 2005 Aug 3.

Bromination and chlorination reactions of myeloperoxidase at physiological concentrations of bromide and chloride.

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Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand.


Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase use hydrogen peroxide to oxidize halides and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. Myeloperoxidase produces mainly hypochlorous acid and hypothiocyanite. Hypobromous acid and hypothiocyanite are the major products of eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the ability of myeloperoxidase to produce hypobromous acid in the presence of physiological concentrations of chloride and bromide. In accord with previous studies, between pH 5 and 7, myeloperoxidase converted about 90% of available hydrogen peroxide to hypochlorous acid and the remainder to hypobromous acid. Above pH 7, there was an abrupt rise in the yield of hypobromous acid. At pH 7.8, it accounted for 40% of the hydrogen peroxide. Bromide, at physiological concentrations, promoted a dramatic increase in bromination of human serum albumin catalyzed by myeloperoxidase. The level of 3-bromotyrosine increased to 16-fold greater than that for 3-chlorotyrosine. Chlorination of tyrosyl residues was not affected by bromide. With reagent hypohalous acids, bromination of tyrosyl residues was considerably more facile than chlorination. Hypochlorous acid promoted bromination to only a limited extent, which ruled out transhalogenation as a substantive route to 3-bromotyrosine. Chloramines and bromamines were also formed on albumin. Bromamines decayed much faster than chloramines and rapidly gave rise to protein carbonyls. We conclude that at physiological concentrations of chloride and bromide, hypobromous acid can be a major oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase. Its production in vivo will depend on pH and the concentration of bromide. Once produced, hypobromous acid will react with proteins to form bromamines, carbonyls, and brominated tyrosine residues. Consequently, 3-bromotyrosine should be considered as an oxidative product of myeloperoxidase and cannot be used as a specific biomarker for eosinophil peroxidase.

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