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J Chem Ecol. 2005 May;31(5):1205-22.

Biotransformation of 2-benzoxazolinone to 2-amino-(3H)-phenoxazin-3-one and 2-acetylamino-(3H)-phenoxazin-3-one in soil.

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Department of Crop Protection, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Flakkebjerg, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark.


An alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides is to exploit the natural defense chemicals produced by cereals. An important class of allelochemicals is cyclic hydroxamic acids and related benzoxazolinones. A prolonged degradation experiment of the allelochemical compound from rye 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) was carried out for up to 90 d at 15 degrees C at three different concentration levels, 3, 3000, and 30,000 nmol BOA g soil(-1), respectively, in a sandy loam soil. Two main degradation products, 2-amino-(3H)-phenoxazin-3-one (APO) and 2-acetylamino-(3H)-phenoxazin-3-one (AAPO), were identified and quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS. The half-life of BOA increased with higher levels of BOA added to the soil. Half-lives of BOA, APO, and AAPO were determined by fitting a single first-order model to the degradation data. Half-life of BOA was determined to be 0.6 d in the 3 nmol BOA g soil(-1) treatment. Half-lives of BOA, APO, and AAPO were 3.1, 2.7, and 2.1 d, respectively, in the 3000 nmol BOA g soil(-1) treatment. In the 30,000 nmol BOA g soil(-1) treatment, the half-lives were 31 d for BOA and 45 d for APO. The microbial community structure was not affected by addition of BOA to the soil as investigated by analysis of signature fatty acids. The results suggest that the exploitability of BOA for crop protection is dependent on the existing concentration of BOA in the soil and the timing of incorporation of hydroxamic acid synthesizing crops into the soil.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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