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Vaccine. 2006 Jan 16;24(3):317-26. Epub 2005 Aug 10.

Immune responses to bovine norovirus-like particles with various adjuvants and analysis of protection in gnotobiotic calves.

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Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691-4096, USA.


We evaluated serum and fecal antibody responses to bovine norovirus (BoNoV) virus-like particles (VLP) and protection against virulent BoNoV in gnotobiotic calves. Calves were vaccinated with two or three doses of VLPs (250 microg/dose) coadministered with oil, mutant E. coli heat-labile toxin (R192G) (mLT) or immunostimulating complexes (ISCOM). Fecal IgA antibody was detected only in calves vaccinated intranasally with VLP+mLT and after challenge, partial protection with delayed, shortened diarrhea (1-2 days) was observed only in these calves. Diarrhea presented from 2 to 6 days in calves vaccinated with VLP with oil or ISCOM and 8 to 9 days in controls. Virus shedding was detected post-challenge by ELISA in all vaccinated calves. All calves recovered from BoNoV infection had high titers of fecal IgA antibodies and were completed protection against challenge. We conclude that only BoNoV VLP+mLT given intranasally stimulated both serum and fecal IgA antibodies and partial protection.

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