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Mitochondrion. 2004 Jul;4(2-3):119-29.

HIV-associated dementia, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress.

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NeuroAIDS Specialized Neuroscience Research Program, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.


Over the past several decades, researchers have made large advances in unraveling the pathogenesis of HIV-related neurological disease leading to substantial benefits for affected individuals. Concomitant advances in HIV-treatment have changed the landscape of HIV care, resulting in alterations in HIV neuroepidemiolgy and potentially the neuropathogenesis of cognitive disorders. Specifically, widespread ARV medications use has heightened our awareness of mitochondrial toxicity, oxidative stress, and metabolic abnormalities and stimulated more research into the related cognitive consequences. Specific sources of oxidative stress among HIV-1-infected individuals to be discussed in this article include the direct effects of HIV-1, chronic immune activation in response to HIV-1 and other pathogens, and co-morbid factors. Continued research in this area could provide novel therapeutic targets.

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