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Molecular characterization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) lipoprotein lipase. Transcriptional regulation by season and nutritional condition in skeletal muscle and fat storage tissues.

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Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal (CSIC), 12595 Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón, Spain.


Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) was cloned and sequenced using a RT-PCR approach completed by 3' and 5'RACE assays. The nucleotide sequence covered 1669 bp with an open reading frame of 525 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids long. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of conservation among most fish and higher vertebrates, retaining the consensus sequence the polypeptide "lid", the catalytic triad and eight cysteine residues at the N-terminal region. A tissue-specific regulation of LPL was also found on the basis of changes in season and nutritional condition as a result of different dietary protein sources. First, the expression of LPL in mesenteric adipose tissue was several times higher than in liver and skeletal muscle. Secondly, the spring up-regulation of LPL expression in the mesenteric adipose tissue was coincident with a pronounced increase of whole body fat content. Thirdly, the highest expression of LPL in the skeletal muscle was found in summer, which may serve to cover the increased energy demands for muscle growth and protein accretion. Further, in fish fed plant-protein-based diets, hepatic LPL expression was up-regulated whereas an opposite trend was found in the mesenteric adipose tissue, which may contribute to drive dietary lipids towards liver fat storage. Finally, it is of interest that changes in circulating triglyceride (TG) levels support the key role of LPL in the clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins. This study is the first report in fish of a co-regulated expression of LPL in oxidative and fat storage tissues under different physiological conditions.

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