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J Clin Neurosci. 2005 Aug;12(6):624-31.

Retinal hemorrhage and pediatric brain injury: etiology and review of the literature.

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Division of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, California 92103-8893, USA.


Retinal hemorrhages have long been linked with child abuse and, in particular, the "shaken baby/shaking-impact" syndrome. However, the presence of retinal hemorrhages is neither necessary nor sufficient for the diagnosis of child abuse. Additionally, retinal hemorrhages are also associated with an ever-expanding list of conditions, each of which carries important implications for patients and their families. To correctly interpret a patient's retinal hemorrhages, the physician requires a broad knowledge base, including of child abuse, the "shaken baby/shaking-impact" syndrome, the differential diagnosis of retinal hemorrhages and the types of retinal hemorrhage and their diagnostic implications. We review the literature regarding types of retinal hemorrhage and their associated etiologies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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