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J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Feb;17(2):117-25. Epub 2005 Jun 20.

Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by flavonoids from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium): possible roles for protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein-kinase-mediated events.

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Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3.


Regulation of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is crucial to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis which is important in metastasis. This study investigated the mechanism(s) by which three flavonoid-enriched fractions from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) down-regulate MMP activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Metalloproteinase activity was evaluated from cells exposed to "crude," anthocyanin-enriched (AN) and proanthocyanidin-enriched (PAC) fractions. Differential down-regulation of MMPs was observed. The activity of the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) from these cells was also evaluated. Increases in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 activity were observed in response to these fractions. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in the flavonoid-mediated decreases in MMP activity was observed. These findings indicate that blueberry flavonoids may use multiple mechanisms in down-regulating MMP activity in these cells.

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