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Immunity. 2005 Aug;23(2):115-26.

A comprehensive review of interventions in the NOD mouse and implications for translation.

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Entelos Inc., Foster City, California 94404, USA.


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) animal models such as the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse have improved our understanding of disease pathophysiology, but many candidate therapeutics identified therein have failed to prevent/cure human disease. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation of disease-modifying agents tested in the NOD mouse based on treatment timing, duration, study length, and efficacy. Interestingly, some popular tenets regarding NOD interventions were not confirmed: all treatments do not prevent disease, treatment dose and timing strongly influence efficacy, and several therapies have successfully treated overtly diabetic mice. The analysis provides a unique perspective on NOD interventions and suggests that the response of this model to therapeutic interventions can be a useful predictor of the human response as long as careful consideration is given to treatment dose, timing, and protocols; more thorough investigation of these parameters should improve clinical translation.

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