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J Atten Disord. 2005 May;8(4):195-207.

Children with ADHD and depression: a multisource, multimethod assessment of clinical, social, and academic functioning.

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Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.


Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and children without ADHD, all derived from a large community sample. High levels of comorbid depression are found in children with ADHD. Children withADHDand depression are more depressed and anxious than their non-depressed ADHDcounterparts but do not have more extreme levels of ADHD or aggression. The association between depression and ADHD does not appear to be epiphenomenal, that is, related to a shared association with anxiety or externalizing symptoms. Finally, children with ADHD and depression display more impairment in social and academic functioning compared to controls. Although social impairment is greater in children with ADHD and depression than in children with only ADHD, conduct problems are not.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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