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J Exp Biol. 2005 Sep;208(Pt 17):3281-91.

Mosquito natriuretic peptide identified as a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone in Anopheles gambiae (Giles).

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Department of Biology, Birkbeck (University of London), London WC1E 7HX, UK.


Mosquito natriuretic peptide (MNP), an uncharacterised peptide from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acts via cyclic AMP to stimulate secretion of Na+-rich urine by opening a Na+ conductance in the basolateral membrane of Malpighian tubule principal cells. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-related peptides and calcitonin (CT)-like diuretic peptides use cyclic AMP as a second messenger and were therefore considered likely candidates for MNP. BLAST searches of the genome of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, gave sequences for the CRF-related peptide Anoga-DH44 and the CT-like peptide Anoga-DH31, which were synthesised and tested for effects on Malpighian tubules from An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, together with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. The cyclic AMP analogue stimulated secretion of Na+-rich urine by An. gambiae Malpighian tubules, reproducing the response to MNP in Ae. aegypti. It also depolarised the principal cell basolateral membrane voltage (Vb) while hyperpolarising the transepithelial voltage (Vt) to a similar extent. Anoga-DH4) and Anoga-DH31 stimulated production of cyclic AMP, but not cyclic GMP, by Malpighian tubules of An. gambiae. Both peptides had diuretic activity, but only Anoga-DH31 had natriuretic activity and stimulated fluid secretion to the same extent as 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Likewise, Anoga-DH31 reproduced the effects of cyclic AMP on tubule electrophysiology, whereas Anoga-DH44 initially hyperpolarised Vb and depolarised Vt, which is the opposite of the effect of Anoga-DH31. Anoga-DH44 and Anoga-DH31 were also tested for effects on fluid secretion and ion transport by Ae. aegypti tubules. As in An. gambiae, the CRF-related peptide Anoga-DH44 had a non-specific effect on the transport of Na+ and K+, whereas the CT-like peptide Anoga-DH31 specifically stimulated transepithelial Na+ transport. We conclude that the CT-like peptide Anoga-DH31 is the previously uncharacterised mosquito natriuretic peptide.

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